When I began designing almost 20+ years ago, customers would come to me and say they need a website. I would follow up the request by asking questions to understand better the customer's needs such as business who, what, why, when, etc. At the time I just wanted to understand the need so I could better design for there vision and the end user.
Fast forward to today and due to the rapid boom in software research has become front and center for understanding who you are creating for ( Thankfully). Here is a brief guide I found great for anyone who is not an experienced designer or researcher but is curious how to bring value to customers via research methods.
What kind of things can you test?
Feature and flow comprehension: Do users understand what this does?
Discoverability and flagging user questions or concerns
Language and copy feedback